Mechanical spring is to make full use of the physical properties of materials, through a certain conversion way to achieve its energy storage and release. The characteristics of material determine the physical and mechanical properties of spring to a certain extent, and affect the design and development of spring and the promotion of special requirements. The most commonly used materials are metal materials and non-metallic materials.
The development of modern new materials is changing with each passing day, especially the continuous emergence and improvement of new high strength metal alloy, which makes the mechanical spring have higher efficiency; At the same time, the continuous optimization of subsequent processing methods of raw materials, such as structure shape, heat treatment and surface quality, makes the application and development of spring meet its functional requirements, and further improves the safety, economy and environmental protection characteristics of spring products.
In recent years, with the rapid development of chemical rubber industry, polyurethane materials are also widely used in spring products, in the field of shock absorption and noise reduction mechanical structure; the air spring with nitrogen or gas-liquid medium is also widely used in the fields of stamping die, dynamic shock absorption of main engine, constant force apparatus, ultra-high temperature elastic structure, etc.
The application of spring material is wood and bamboo materials at first, and metal alloy is widely used after entering the industrial era. With the continuous improvement of mechanical spring characteristics, the special and special metal alloy spring steel is gradually formed according to the requirements of spring material with high strength and high yield ratio. The general development trend of metal alloy spring steel is higher tensile strength and yield strength ratio, and better toughness. At the same time, the special stainless steel spring steel can meet the application in the severe corrosion environment; the special high temperature resistant and constant elastic material can meet the application in the high temperature environment.